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Wakawa et al  

Full Length Research Paper

Depression, Self-Stigma and Quality of Life: A Comparative Analysis of Adults on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and Diabetics in a Tertiary Health Institution in Northeastern Nigeria


Ibrahim Abdu Wakawa*1, Shehu Sale2, Sadique Pindar Kwajafa1, Omeiza Beida3, Wakil Musa Abba1, Muktar Yerima Mohammed1, Isa Bukar Rabbebe4

1Mental health department, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of psychiatry, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.
3Mental health department, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri.
4Department of clinical services, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri.


Corresponding author email: ibrahimabdu55@gmail.com; Tel: +2348066787941

Received April 15, 2014; Accepted April 28, 2014


Despite the change in status of HIV infection to a chronic disorder akin to diabetes mellitus due to the use of antiretroviral medications, HIV+ subjects in sub-Saharan Africa still suffer from the effects of their ‘spoiled identity’. This study compared the prevalence of depression and self-stigma among HIV+ and diabetic subjects and evaluated the differential correlation between depression and their quality of life. This study was conducted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital in Nigeria and the subjects were drawn using systematic random sampling. The Beck Depression Inventory, the 3-item stigma scale and the WHOQOL-BREF were used for data collection. Prevalence of depression was 20.5% in the HIV subjects against 8.3% in the diabetics (χ2=17.46, p=<0.001) and the experience of self-stigma was about 4-times more likely in the HIV+ subjects than the diabetics (60.1% Vs 16.7% respectively: χ2=116.99, p=<0.001). There were stronger negative correlations between depression and quality of life scores among the subjects on HAART than among the diabetics. Conclusively, we therefore recommend routine clinical surveillance and psycho education on adaptive coping strategies in the management of the HIV+ subjects.

Keywords: Depression, Self-stigma, Quality of life, Highly active antiretroviral therapy, North-eastern Nigeria.




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